Mining und Cloudmining: Die Frage der Gewerblichkeit ...


submitted by nrps400 to slatestarcodex [link] [comments]

Why the fuck did Adam Back not mine any bitcoin?

This is not trollbait, I'm genuinely interested. I've just been reading this site and it seems to me that Adam Back was a key person in the history of bitcoin. It's very surprising to me that he didn't fire up a miner back in 2009, given that he knew about bitcoin before the genesis block. I thought he may have done some mining just to see it in action for himself, but no.
Can anyone explain why he didn't? He must be really regretting it now, and I kind of feel sorry for the guy.
Quote from Adam from that web page:
If like Hal Finney I’d actually tried to run the miner back then, I may too be sitting on some genesis/bootstrap era coins. Alas I own not a single bitcoin which is kind of ironic as the actual bitcoin mining is basically my hashcash invention…
submitted by blechman to btc [link] [comments]

List of Scott's most influential twitter followers

It seems like Scott/SSC has gotten much more mainstream recognition over the past year, so I was curious to know who the most influential SSC readers are now. Using twitter follower data for this isn't perfect (follower count is not a perfect proxy for influence, not all SSC readers follow the twitter account, etc.), but it's the best I could think of and I figured it would be a fun exercise regardless.
As an aside, a few interesting stats I learned about Scott's twitter followers (scraped on 12/30/17):
  1. Scott is followed by exactly two members of Congress: Justin Amash (Republican) and Jim Himes (Democrat)
  2. Scott has 351 bluecheck followers
  3. Of the top 100 most-followed followers, the gender breakdown (by my count) is 82 men vs 8 women (along with 10 organization or anonymous accounts). Among the top 50, it's 43 men and 1 woman (Liv Boeree)
  4. 385 followers (2% of the total) have bios including either "bitcoin", "ethereum", "crypto" or "blockchain"
  5. There are 67 followers whose bios include either "@Google", "@ Google", "at Google", or "Googler"
Note: When constructing the top 100 below, I excluded accounts that had extremely large Following counts, since I wanted the list to just consist of (likely) actual SSC readers. My exact rule was to exclude any account that follows >20K, include any that follows <10K, and include accounts in the 10K-20K range iff their following/follower ratio was less than 10% (this last condition was mostly just because I wanted to keep @pmarca on the list).
Anyway, below is the top 100. I also constructed lists for Eliezer, Robin Hanson, and gwern, and I can post those in the comments if anyone's interested.
Ranking Twitter Name Full Name Bio Bluecheck Follower Count Following Count
1 @NateSilver538 Nate Silver Editor-in-Chief, @FiveThirtyEight. Author, The Signal and the Noise ( Sports/politics/food geek. 1 2860782 1051
2 @ezraklein Ezra Klein Founder and editor-at-large, Come work with us! 1 2277052 1112
3 @timoreilly Tim O'Reilly Founder and CEO, O'Reilly Media. Watching the alpha geeks, sharing their stories, helping the future unfold. 1 1988716 1829
4 @paulg Paul Graham 1 1066366 322
5 @SamHarrisOrg Sam Harris Author of The End of Faith, The Moral Landscape, Waking Up, and other bestselling books published in over 20 languages. Host of the Waking Up… 1 974855 229
6 @techreview MIT Tech Review MIT Technology Review equips its audiences with the intelligence to understand a world shaped by technology. 1 794095 3367
7 @pmarca Marc Andreessen 1 672740 16319
8 @cdixon Chris Dixon programming, philosophy, history, internet, startups, investing 1 572260 3320
9 @RealTimeWWII WW2 Tweets from 1939 I livetweet the 2nd World War, as it happened on this day in 1939 & for 6 years to come (2nd time around). Created by Alwyn Collinson,… 0 516803 459
10 @VitalikButerin Vitalik Buterin See 1 458582 154
11 @Tribeca Tribeca Great stories from the greatest storytellers. 1 409581 18678
12 @bhorowitz Ben Horowitz Author of Ben's Blog ( and HarperBusiness book, THE HARD THING ABOUT HARD THINGS… 1 405820 255
13 @mattyglesias Matthew Yglesias Fake news. Bad takes. Dad jokes. We’re actually on the Bad Place. 1 372341 754
14 @naval Naval Present. 0 339469 478
15 @SwiftOnSecurity SwiftOnSecurity I make stupid jokes, talk systems security, +, write Scifi, sysadmin, & use Oxford commas. Sprezzatura. 0 211672 7530
16 @alexismadrigal Alexis C. Madrigal staff writer @TheAtlantic in the real world, these just people with ideas Mexican, Oakland, Earthseed 1 203540 5682
17 @ScottAdamsSays Scott Adams Win Bigly: 1 202042 788
18 @Khanoisseur Adam Khan Majordomo; Stuff at @Google @Twitter @SpaceX @Apple Exposing Trump… *Turn notifications on for breaking Trump… 0 183964 9359
19 @felixsalmon Felix Salmon Host and editor, Cause & Effect 1 180414 1832
20 @fmanjoo Farhad Manjoo (feat. Drake) NYT. DMs are open. signal: 4156836738. [email protected]. Instagram/Snapchat: fmanjoo 1 167592 4095
21 @VsauceTwo Vsauce2 Being Human. personal twitter: @kevleeb 0 151795 279
22 @russian_market Russian Market Swiss Financial Blogger. In Bitcoin we trust. 1 148866 939
23 @AaronDayAtlas Aaron Day CEO @Salucorp, Chairman @stark_360. #entrepreneur #btc #blockchain #healthcare #paleo #tech #dad Former candidate for #USSenate #ENTJ 0 133389 2075
24 @justinamash Justin Amash I defend #liberty and explain every vote at • 'Laws must be general, equal, and certain.' —F.A. Hayek 1 131997 5376
25 @Liv_Boeree Liv Boeree Poker player & Team Pokerstars Pro. Physics creature. Aspiring rationalist. Mountain goat. [email protected] 1 125366 451
26 @MaxCRoser Max Roser Researcher @UniOfOxford – Follow me for data visualizations of long-term trends of living standards – mostly from my web publication: 1 114045 583
27 @Jonathan_Blow Jonathan Blow Game designer of Braid and The Witness. Partner in IndieFund. 0 112827 68
28 @andrewchen Andrew Chen Growth: @uber. Writer: Plus one: @briannekimmel 0 111077 6288
29 @charlescwcooke Charles C. W. Cooke Editor of National Review Online. Classical liberal. Immigrant. Jack’s Dad. Wino. ‘The American is the Englishman left to himself.’ 1 110071 872
30 @AlanEyre1 Alan Eyre Diplomat, U.S. State Dept, Energy Resources Bureau. Middle East/Asia Energy; ایران. RT doesn't =endorsement; 'likes' don't necessarily=likes, often… 1 106947 3514
31 @karpathy Andrej Karpathy Director of AI at Tesla. Previously a Research Scientist at OpenAI, and CS PhD student at Stanford. I like to train Deep Neural Nets on large datasets. 1 106643 445
32 @JamesADamore James Damore Nerd centrist interested in open discussions and improving the world by fixing perverse incentive structures. Author of the pro-diversity … 1 94580 210
33 @SherwoodStrauss Ethan Strauss Podcasting 1 88258 1204
34 @james_clear James Clear Author, weightlifter and travel photographer in 25+ countries. Over 400,000 people subscribe to my weekly newsletter on how to build better habits. 1 87968 218
35 @nk from the future Wealth and personal achievement expert 0 81712 591
36 @benthompson Ben Thompson AuthoFounder of @stratechery. Host of @exponentfm. @notechben for sports. @monkbent on other networks. Home on the Internet. 1 78746 1267
37 @matthewherper Matthew Herper Forbes reporter covering science and medicine 1 78698 2111
38 @JeremyCMorgan Jeremy Morgan Tech Blogger, Hacker, Pluralsight Author, and Volunteer Firefighter. Once held the world record for being the youngest person alive 0 78601 7365
39 @balajis Balaji S. Srinivasan CEO ( and Board Partner (@a16z). I hear this Bitcoin thing might be kind of a big deal. You can reach me at 1 70707 2936
40 @patrickc Patrick Collison Fallibilist, optimist. Stripe CEO. 1 68709 1875
41 @matthew_d_green Matthew Green I teach cryptography at Johns Hopkins. 0 68434 594
42 @delong Brad DeLong 🖖🏻 I'm trying to be smart, knowledgable, funny, and well-wishing. You try too--at least 2 of 4. Low volume: 1+ per day... 0 67968 1578
43 @flantz Frank Lantz game designer 0 66090 278
44 @MYSTIQUEWEST MYSTIQUE NYC The Mystique Gentlemen’s Strip Club offers the best in adult entertainment in New York City. With unique stage design, full bars and the most beautiful dancers. 0 64881 332
45 @AceofSpadesHQ TheOne&OnlyExpert I'm not #TheExpert, or the expert parodying #TheExpert. I'm the real expert. 0 64872 1464
46 @btaylor Bret Taylor President, Chief Product Officer of @Salesforce. Previously CEO Quip, CTO Facebook, CEO FriendFeed, co-creator Google Maps. Stanford fan, @Twitter… 1 64829 687
47 @wycats Yehuda Katz Tilde Co-Founder, OSS enthusiast and world traveler. 1 63933 849
48 @jahimes Jim Himes Connecticut Congressman. Reader. Runner. Swimmer. And I make maple syrup. 1 62820 411
49 @abnormalreturns Tadas Viskanta Financial Educator, Author and Editor of Abnormal Returns. 0 61693 413
50 @BrendanNyhan Brendan Nyhan @Dartmouth political science professor, @UpshotNYT contributor, and @BrightLineWatch co-organizer. Before: @CJR / Spinsanity / All the President'… 1 61508 6149
51 @matt_levine Matt Levine da, wo Menschen arbeiten, wird es immer Fehler geben 1 61314 990
52 @BretWeinstein Bret Weinstein Professor in Exile If we don't harness evolution, it will harness us. 1 61049 536
53 @gaberivera Gabe Rivera Blame me for @Techmeme and @mediagazer. Nicer than my tweets. Often sarcastic. DMs are open. 2+2â‰5. Retweets are endorphins. 1 59927 5599
54 @SarahTheHaider Sarah Haider Promotes free-speech, human rights, liberalism, atheism. Director of Outreach,Ex-Muslims of North America. Pakistani by birth, American by… 0 59574 292
55 @TheInfinite_T ✨Infinite_T✨ NSFW Send GoogleWallet to [email protected] pls send all your tokens to Wishlist: 0 59061 645
56 @cblatts Chris Blattman Political economist studying conflict, crime, and poverty, and @UChicago Professor @HarrisPolicy and @PearsonInst. I blog at … 0 57670 2445
57 @jamestaranto James Taranto Editorial Features Editor, in charge of @WSJ op-ed pages. Best of the Web columnist 2000-17. 1 56733 174
58 @nitashatiku Nitasha Tiku Senior writer @Wired covering Silicon Valley [email protected], DM for Signal 1 56133 4327
59 @DKThomp Derek Thompson Writer at @TheAtlantic. Author of HIT MAKERS. Talker on NPR's @hereandnow. Economics of work and play. derek[at]theatlantic[dot]com 1 53387 1116
60 @aliamjadrizvi Ali A. Rizvi Pakistani-Canadian author of The Atheist Muslim (SMP/Macmillan). Amazon order link below. Co-host of @SecularJihadist podcast. Contact:… 1 52806 784
61 @RameshPonnuru Ramesh Ponnuru @NRO, @BV, @AEI, @CBS. Husband of @aprilponnuru. 1 51721 613
62 @JYuter Rabbi Josh Yuter "For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways" Is. 55:8. Jewish stuff + bad jokes. All opinions subject to change. 1 50731 2599
63 @meganphelps Megan Phelps-Roper “You're just a human being, my dear, sweet child.” Speaking requests: [email protected] Contact: [email protected] 1 49678 792
64 @albertwenger Albert Wenger VC at 1 49107 1794
65 @paulbloomatyale Paul Bloom Psychologist who studies and writes about human nature—including morality, pleasure, and religion 1 48579 391
66 @conor64 Conor Friedersdorf Staff writer at The Atlantic, founding editor of The Best of Journalism–subscribe here:… 1 46977 1405
67 @EricRWeinstein Eric Weinstein Managing director @ Thiel Capital. Some assembly required. Spelling not included. May contain math. Tweets are my own. 1 46263 850
68 @adamdangelo Adam D'Angelo CEO of Quora 1 45545 526
69 @robbystarbuck Robby Starbuck Director + Producer + Founder at RSM Creative - Husband to @imatriarch - Dad to 3 Kids + 2 Dogs - Futurist - Cuban American - Fan of Civilized Debate 1 45308 1842
70 @clairlemon Claire Lehmann Principle before affiliation. Founder, editor Contact me at 1 45305 2000
71 @tombennett71 Tom Bennett Director of researchED- Chair of @educationgovuk Behaviour group. Free training available here 1 43859 3698
72 @m2jr Mike Maples The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep,And miles to go before I sleep,And miles to go before I sleep.-Robert Frost 0 43629 3915
73 @DavidDidau David Didau Education writer and speaker. Ginger. #PsychBook OUT NOW!; #WrongBook still available: 0 43531 1092
74 @ByronTau Byron Tau congress et al. for @wsj. interested in law, lobbying, nat'l security, investigations, gov't ethics and . contact me securely: 1 43026 2699
75 @MichaelKitces MichaelKitces One nerd’s perspective on the financial planning world… CFP, #LifelongLearner, Entrepreneur-In-Denial, Advisor #FinTech, & publisher of the Nerd’s Eye View blog 1 42304 459
76 @rahulkapil Rahul Kapil Come to observe. Stay to play. 0 41987 975
77 @michaelbatnick Irrelevant Investor Long-distance reader 0 41620 1076
78 @yegg Gabriel Weinberg CEO & Founder, @DuckDuckGo. Co-author, Traction. I want to publish zines and rage against machines. DM for Signal. 1 39470 151
79 @Jesse_Livermore Jesse Livermore Trader, Speculator, Bucketeer 0 39190 4459
80 @iconominet ICONOMI Digital Assets Management Platform for the Decentralised Economy 0 39030 1942
81 @IKucukparlak İlker Küçükparlak Psikiyatrist 0 38018 757
82 @vdare Virginia Dare The Twitter account for the editors of VDARE. Featured at the 2016 Republican National Convention 0 37723 4429
83 @juliagalef Julia Galef SF-based writer & speaker focused on reasoning, judgment, and the future of humanity. Host of the Rationally Speaking podcast (@rspodcast) 1 37530 340
84 @nicknotned Nick Denton Internet publisher 1 36708 2524
85 @JeremyMcLellan Jeremy McLellan Standup Comedian, Papist-in-training, biryani extremist, alleged member of the Muslim Cousinhood, US ambassador to the Pindi Boyz, spy pigeon trainer 1 36253 1538
86 @collision John Collison Co-founder of @stripe. 0 35995 1290
87 @narcissawright ♕ Narcissa fledgling seer 1 35375 1266
88 @panzer Matthew Panzarino Editor-in-Chief, TechCrunch. Telecom stories killed: 0. PGP Key 1 35162 2902
89 @EconTalker Russell Roberts How Adam Smith Can Change Your Life (, EconTalk host, econ novelist, co-creator of Keynes/Hayek rap videos, 0 34611 669
90 @nktpnd Ankit Panda Senior Editor @Diplomat_APAC in NYC. Thinking/writing/speaking on global security, politics, and economics. Via @WilsonSchool. Views mine & RTâ‰â€¦ 1 34041 995
91 @Official_Quame Kwame A. A Opoku Futurist• Global Business Speaker, Founder @fobaglobal, @wefestafrica, @ideafactorylive • CEO Mary&Mary LLC • Entrepreneur • Tedx Speaker •Influencer 0 33924 3526
92 @dylanmatt Dylan Matthews I know, I know, I don't like me either. Retweets are proposals of marriage. 1 33262 5579
93 @Jonnymagic00 Jon Finkel I'm a magic player who also manages a hedge fund. 0 33234 284
94 @Heminator Mark Hemingway "After all these years of professional experience, why can’t I write good?" Senior Writer @WeeklyStandard. Husband of @MZHemingway. 1 33034 4877
95 @sweenzor Onson Sweemey 0 32044 5288
96 @PhilosophersEye Philosopher's Eye Philosophy updates, pop culture, fun stuff, and links to resources from the Wiley Blackwell Philosophy Team. 0 31931 6503
97 @VladZamfir Vlad Zamfir Absurdist, troll. 0 31764 418
98 @m_clem Michael Clemens Fellow @[email protected]_bonn. My views only. Assoc. Editor @JPopEcon & @WorldDevJournal. Author of @WallsofNations, coming in 2018.… 1 31746 3650
99 @RudyHavenstein Rudolf E. Havenstein ReichsBank®President 1908-1923; Central Bank consultant. 'My way of joking is to tell the truth' - GB Shaw. Tweets solely for my own amusemen… 0 31115 1293
100 @tikhon Tikhon Bernstam CEO & Founder of Parse (YC S'11, acquired by Facebook for $85M in 2013). Founder @Scribd (YC S'06). @ycombinator alum. 0 31030 5184
submitted by disumbrationist to slatestarcodex [link] [comments]

SR1 trial: DPR's private key

One of the released evidence exhibits (torrent, 538MB) is GX 296.pdf (mirror), which is a PGP private key, specifically: SilkRoad.asc, "dated modified 11/22/2011 8:21:46 AM".
This is the ASCII-armored private key of the main DPR public key, the one he signed forum posts with and messaged with people. I was surprised to see it screenshotted like that, and I thought it would be hilarious if I could take the private key and announce that I was actually the real DPR by signing it with his key (since I've occasionally been accused of it).
But it's a screenshot and not something one can copy-paste, which makes things difficult since every letter has to be perfect for the key to be valid. So I took an evening to carefully transcribe it; it took multiple passes to figure out each and every transcription error (mostly 1/l, O/0, which look nearly identical in the font*), but I finally did it:
-----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (GNU/Linux) lQO+BE2VWMwBCADcoI5qldde46EI80fHSTCS4CuJn1Py4AQjJvpAqFColeAm9xb1 /hb0ZUsG3vwod7uiPJdMlq3+1o3TSv9JlO3DPf7I50owQ9+S1ixXebouTvfpEKSb dq1IWAu+O4PtlmFEb76MOmjOzoeV8We8kCRFq8ThoK979A1DR09KsaDfSjCITdsU mQyVaRN0dCaj33V/QAPQybYAjNDEiNd0e1tV22n1dl6z2oVUgfJiuTVI5C0FhSKP c3odexbKUSVk9tkUWcfnk8+9HF5jGNHnUSjWxMkG1uZUDdWKl4yJqQhBHdYqcz8A hcJ6xADbFeoYEO6z5NEjXV0KmoDRCi4C7gdfABEBAAH+AgMC7Hbd7rIjH9vHfrZp /lhwGpLJknlcg/xD4nhaFtrlAVW5Lqn/oL/JqXKX6buPMGWsqrc+E/7A1ZMMHTl0 bn99MSQi1mTkCVyJP4xTpKouLmLIxvzy2/GOMGS03QX8iSzbE4j0el/c5YlYEQr4 genr8Xq9Iyv73W+1n+yOQvJ9PqaMFdyAZLIdNuEgBzvXSt00a5bLKjbL/KuoTdrA C3D1bc0HDlKnzVLcSAFat+y6A5B4EuI/d1oW2Id1tq3azuUpEb9ctG26sYtw7ipE edNjcwsO9XA+vNTnPy9ms698yf615Bwioih5FYNM3Vsqc1zLpv5XwdYWWRW4WRIW xiqqgv6oGh6+HU9XMV937+1VNDf4k4sNXECjxQ4B0MX/F5eWEsfIlqt4V2HMEDE/ eQ0zQbVRhf2MBJ6n6Vw6DDEUEv+4Dn9CUdYSyJPsK7/0JLO/VnKoPqvwhq+p7hZ4 JMHPWwFoMsT3Nuj15Nk3CrgDGE9C6GSyP88BTnSbgyqe9erFHXTOm80r6OfKpDVB h8/nt7iCFxlPcTLqkUoZf1ZwmlJCSD5fB9/yaAwTc3klFdkiPe0ZFODa/aLOqZrG AoYLsPMt9fntzrnXfwsTthkBxDSFiTxxxlRe1eQeRlALO2Bm5Qfn6jRGhrIraX RksscWcFWptjVlm9CDr2al7otX/RPqFjX3uiJMZfBFoYDmb49xdGaptlMCHaD6Wm XJFb4Wiu1ovERN38AT6IxXFPmPJw6SKrSmVeV5Pmn9+SHtfjAA+st0EMGhzBtW2N uZr0wwO1/EcrzaOP4So7n7IqmG3nKafibY2q5Occn/BHqvTKaik+q4b6a/vVdTtl Erp3hXlGk/6UpBLT5RYbU4p7WLGAj5r8DAyH0kI1+tcCxBKD9WVLSFzYqH9Ea59g 77QkU2lsayBSb2FkIDxzdGFmZkBzaWxrcm9hZG1hcmtldC5vcmc+iQE4BBMBAgAi BQJNlVjMAhsPBgsJCAcDAgYVCAIJCgsEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAAKCRACIkI7Z7f6JV/P B/92DrCPpqfzF6EPu1g6Mxt/39EAosKr4YwmVE5DuY+g6pR2dOtDfvkt3QxQkURB QeyaKOQNuXus4vDQi4kcmzHD3DLmc0A0wQzGOyl0a+LwdqUOtckL4SIPbEzSDP9e sOZOweGkBkSDB13KBkW4fFbDGkEcYHZyUt/jFgxflMLtnxAksR1fH0NbmZnUr1e4 L7p+QylRuXOhGLObOTU0n7KDbuZijgqKDKyV6yEXfLJDrZqzlqmoh+DJisn+53Br glDwt7p3MHR3ejyausNeodK7FJ0sY0uHUHuUOmF2xDGvHVb/jrwS5sb7k8YMuq ptRgsMLFLebgM3jrCg78g23k =D+ez -----END PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- 
This imports into my GPG without any CRC problems and with correct metadata, so it should be right. But it turns out to be passphrase-protected! Dammit! My first try to decrypt it was to take the server exhibit, write down every password given in it, and try those:
109j7IAier 2n3fh4n3o 2t31fKF5hm 2WBx5obj 34534r3f 384jdridh 3j483r87yfn38 _47JB+p1\j}[email protected](L[nZ)#W- 4B5HMiJYy0N0bbK5 4pVAW9bv 4W8IWDjInLguJD8T 83drj3984 8pz2PGGEmn3h3hGJ 8sa7dhf8a7 938ru39 9MPGCtBK abrault66 abstractapproachfillsthemindwithjoy acharlton66 achrlton66 ameeraissa66 [email protected] [email protected] bTyL5RbC cbrady66 cdigby66 dboone66 dFDrN345DSftX dQsQRighnXczcphJ dsmith66 dwallace66 dwiurhi37n EgXcn1ANYF eK5nJgfDqERQ3K96 fahu6wq4ue fwarren66 gboyle66 gtilly66 hallahaa hR6vpCxaGY HuKKtaoLLa hulluh832 J39hlF4n Je)pae]yuxeif7xi jknCRfR3yq3hbtzp k8JqM7Cijw kborunda66 kclark66 LaQXhcURAGMME3gq lmackrell66 lzielinski66 mgatewood66 nlbosm42093 nsj8jdke oh3bdc8wcn rlvrGdex RPGLdgjjveBtHpEN SD8rcicL sfa76ht7 sofas-qxsch sums-XATq86P the2Fieshaqu tkiW23GL U5f305OX Uha4zFYo v6ay080942 w732ihrw7e w8j374847dhw wefi7y4mwh wjBSGHvfEQdfh9oZ x4TiJfRE XUVYNGBgvu7fb5Hw yMrEATSQ7BsBEouV zFAvzSBUXcC0 zS08HbISvSZcB5Ex 
None of these seemed to work for me. (imposter also tried the Elcom dictionary +0-9, 6-9 characters, alphabet, lowercase.)
So then I turned to a password cracker, specifically John the Ripper (WP), whose bleeding-jumbo edition I compiled with OpenCL (so it could use my wimpy GPU, which for Bitcoin mining could do something like 50mh/s); John doesn't handle GPG natively, but it apparently does ship with a tool gpg2john to convert the passphrase hash to something it can work with, which yields:
Silk Road:$gpg$*1*668*2048*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*3*254*2*2*8*7eb669fe58701a92*6029312*ec76ddeeb2231fdb:::Silk Road ::/home/gwern/sr.asc 
I think one could also try pgpry but I didn't since I got john up and running before I saw it.
Since the server passwords failed, and I saw a variety of characters and capitalizations, I had john do bruteforce:
john --format=gpg-opencl --incremental=ASCII sr-hash 
I ran it for about a week, and finally lost my patience. I was hoping it'd be like one of the short passphrases in the server password list, which would have been bruteforced by now. I wound up ending john at
0g 9:13:13:11 0g/s 74.14p/s 74.14c/s 74.14C/s dsssii..dlshk2 
(john.log, john.rec)
Oh well. It was worth a shot. Not everything pans out.
But maybe someone with a GPU cluster or better at password cracking wants to give it a shot and reveal the passphrase? I can't pretend to be DPR after posting this, but it would still be interesting to go back and decrypt some of the messages to DPR on the SR1 forums. (Why should LE have all the snooping fun?)
* these characters also mean OCR is not very useful for transcribing crypto keys; every character has to be perfect, so since you're going to be going character-by-character anyway... One thought I had was that the right key was only maybe 5-10 edits away from the OCR version or my first hand-draft, so it should be feasible to brute-force all versions within a certain edit distance to see if their CRC is right or brute-force specific transpositions. But I don't transcribe keys nearly often enough to bother writing such a tool.
submitted by gwern to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

The evolution of Distributed Ledger Technologies - Part 1

Understanding really something means that you need to look at how it was created and how it has evolved.
Blockchain technology was not created out of nowhere or overnight from an anonymous crazy inventor called Satoshi Nakamoto, as some may believe. It was the outcome of collective human innovation through a very strange set of circumstances that would set the setting stone for a new decentralized movement and a new and better concept of money. To grasp ahold of the origin of Bitcoin and the Distributed Ledger Technologies, or plainly laid out “Blockchain” in modern online literature, one has to look at the history and the combined influence of 4 elements, Cryptography, Open Source Software, Peer to Peer Sharing Networks, Crypto-Economics.

Part 1 - Introduction to Cryptography

Cryptography is about solving the problem of transmitting information fast, securely and covertly to an audience. The problem arose as new technology increased the potential of communication and the danger from information being stolen. In the 1930s and during the World War II encryption and cryptography boomed as a result of military research and development, that would provide a competitive advantage and eventually greatly assist by breaking almost every German and Japanese code. Formal information security and electronic surveillance organizations would then be born and continue to this day, such as the NSA.

Military Enigma machine, model \"Enigma I\", used during the late 1930s and during the war; displayed at Museo scienza e tecnologia Milano, Italy.

Pioneering cryptographers were James Ellis and Clifford Cocks with their public key encryption idea. An encrypted message would contain the key that would enable unlocking the encryption, however the idea was not at that point feasible as it entailed a public communications network such as the internet as a foundation. These systems were not yet available to the public in the 1970s.
Additionally, David Chaum, was the first to propose cryptocurrency in 1983, in a paper called “Numbers can be a better form of cash than paper” as well as other ideas like untraceable electronic mail, digital signatures and digital secret identities.

The Rise of the Cypherpunks

With the emergence of the internet, by the 1990s’ a new movement called Cypherpunks was born. These people wanted to use the encryption tools developed by the military-industrial complex to protect individuals and their privacy.
In early 1991, a U.S. Senate legislation had a proposal that would force electronic communications service providers to hand over individuals’ private messages. A little known programmer called Phil Zimmerman decided to develop a tool that would help individuals freely communicate on the internet. Concerned that the American government would soon require service providers to turn over its users’ communications, Phil developed the free software known as Pretty Good Privacy, or PGP, so that individuals could encrypt the contents of their own messages, texts and files. PGP quickly became the world’s most popular email-encryption software and one of the world’s first examples of public key encryption to gain any kind of widespread adoption. It was notably used by Edward Snowden to secretly transfer classified documents from the NSA to journalist Glenn Greenwald in 2012.

NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden in a still image taken from video during an interview.

In late 1992, Eric Hughes, Tim May and John Gilmore invited twenty of their closest friends to an informal meeting to discuss programming and cryptographic issues. This meeting was then held monthly at John Gilmore’s company, Cygnus Solutions and as the group grew they decided to setup a mailing list to reach other people elsewhere and the Cypherpunks were already growing in numbers. The ideas and concepts shared in this mailing list varied from cryptography, mathematics, computer science and political as well as philosophical debates, with privacy being one of the main founding principles.

“Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world.”

Early attempts of anonymous transaction systems that would introduce game theory and incentivised behaviour, was the Hashcash in 1997, by Dr. Adam Back, which was a system to prove that some computational power was spent to create a stamp in the header of an email, acting as an anti-spam mechanism, a concept that might sound familiar to the proof of Work use in Bitcoin.
In 1998, Wei Dai published his proposal for B-Money, which included two methods of maintaining transaction data, one in which all participants hold a separate database or ledger and a second in which a specific group only holds the database and are incentivized to act honestly as they have deposited their own money into a special account and stand to lose it by acting dishonestly, also known as the “Proof of Stake” method. Ethereum is one of the cryptocurrencies considering to move to this method of transaction verification since it provides efficiency benefits.
In 2004, Hal Finney created the Reusable Proofs of Work based on the principles of Hashcash, which were unique cryptographic tokens you could only spend once, but were limited to validation and protection against double spending from a central server. In 2005 Nick Szabo gave his own proposal for BitGold, a system which units would be valued differently based upon the amount of computational work performed to create them.
Finally, in 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym for a still-unidentified individual or individuals, published the bitcoin whitepaper, citing both hashcash and b-money, addressing many of the problems that the earlier developers had faced, including double spending. The bitcoin white paper attracted a lot of criticism from sceptics, but Satoshi moved on despite the critics and mined the genesis block of Bitcoin on 3rd of January 2009.
See you in the next article!
I think that’s enough condensed knowledge for one article.
In the following article we’ll look at Open Source Software and study its influence in the development of Blockchain Technologies.

End of Part I

Originally published via Steemit:
submitted by GeorgeTProfit to cryptography [link] [comments]

An essay I'm working on

I’m posting this as an incomplete and rather disorganized draft of an essay I’m working on. I'll will publish a longer and complete post later on (I think I'm only about 1/3 of the way through it), but I figured I share what I already have:
There’s an ethos to Bitcoin that many people find particularly hard to grasp. In this essay, I’m will attempt to take some of the more technical problems in Bitcoin and distill them into something that can be understood by a wider audience, but first I feel it’s necessary to provide some historical background about the realm of digital/electronic cash. I'll present a few hours of light reading (not required to understand the essay, but important nonetheless):
From the Cypherpunk's Manifesto:
We the Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems. We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money.
This was written in 1993, a full 15 years before Bitcoin was conceived. So why did it take so long? Because there were other electronic money systems that were attempted and failed. In order to understand Bitcoin, I believe it's important to understand the context of these past failures.
David Chaum came up with a radical idea somewhere around 1982: “Blind signatures for untraceable payments”. In the 6 page paper, he laid out an electronic cash system which provided the “inability of third parties to determine the payee, time, or amount of payments made by an individual.” In order to accomplish this, he came up with a beautiful system called a “blind signature.” It was secure, but it had a big non-cryptographic fatal flaw: It required a trusted third party (bank) in order to function. The third party could refuse to make or take payments and do all sorts of other nastiness. That didn't matter to Chaum because his company would be the bank, and he would not violate those ideals. Using these concepts he founded a company called DigiCash (here is the post-mortem):
Not to be deterred by prior failure another digital currency company was started around 1998: E-gold. This was met with significantly more success in adoption. My theory is that E-Gold succeeded where DigiCash failed because E-gold provided a tangible good (gold) as a backing. It’s hard for a consumer to accept data as money if they have little knowledge of what the past and current money systems are based on. Ultimately, E-gold met a different failure mode: the State (see wiki article for details). I strongly believe that had DigiCash survived to E-gold’s level of adoption, it would have either been co-opted or obliterated by this mechanism as well.
There are a number of other examples of failures which have occurred in “E-Cash” world: Beenz, Liberty Reserve, PayPal, etc. There’s a whole other story about PayPal, but for brevity we’ll just say it “co-opted” rather than “obliterated.” These numerous failures were a bit of an ideological crisis for the Cypherpunks. Many were (and many still are) of the opinion that a viable e-cash could not be created without ending in two failure modes: Co-opted (and thus neutered) by existing government/corporate power structures or destroyed because it threatened the aforementioned structures. This is something that’s played out in the physical world as well (see Liberty Dollar).
There were a couple good technical reasons why it was thought impossible, not the least of which was the Byzantine General’s Problem (further reading here and here). There were engineered answers to the problem, but none were thought to be resilient enough to withstand an open network with dishonest (and even irrationally evil) participants. Most knew that centralized solutions would fail because they had already been tried (even when created by their own). There were a few solutions that were close to solving the problem but missed the mark (RPOW), were never implemented (bit-gold and b-money), or weren’t intended to be a general solution (hashcash).
Enter Bitcoin. On October 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto made a post on the Cryptography mail list presenting a copy of his paper: and the abstract. I’ll post the very first public criticism on the list (emphasis mine):
We very, very much need such a system, but the way I understand your proposal, it does not seem to scale to the required size.
For transferable proof of work tokens to have value, they must have monetary value. To have monetary value, they must be transferred within a very large network - for example a file trading network akin to bittorrent.
To detect and reject a double spending event in a timely manner, one must have most past transactions of the coins in the transaction, which, naively implemented, requires each peer to have most past transactions, or most past transactions that occurred recently. If hundreds of millions of people are doing transactions, that is a lot of bandwidth - each must know all, or a substantial part thereof.
Reasonably, Satoshi replies with this:
Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.
The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.
If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal.
I want to point something out about this conversation: Satoshi does not dispute James Donald’s point that a fully deployed network at the time of publication would not be possible… he simply states that in the future it will be possible because of optimizations and technological improvements. I believe that neither are right, but Satoshi was just slightly closer to being correct. Close enough to pique the Hal Finney's (creator of RPOW) interest and the rest is history.
Some other notes that I’ll be working on incorporating into a final draft of this: Based on email provided by Wei Dai to gwern, Satoshi was known to contact Adam Back and Wei Dai before the posting on p2pfoundation or on the Cryptography mailing list. It’s interesting the lack of knowledge that Satoshi displayed regarding prior art: it seems he didn’t know about b-money, RPOW, or bitgold at the time he was directed by Adam towards the b-money concept. It makes me wonder if he would have fallen into a mental trap had he known about those concepts.
submitted by throckmortonsign to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: bitcoin top posts from 2016-11-05 to 2016-12-04 23:10 PDT

Period: 29.72 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 39770
Rate (per day) 33.65 1317.40
Unique Redditors 635 5193
Combined Score 79721 141041

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 4004 points, 1 submission: btg643
    1. Excuse me? (4004 points, 293 comments)
  2. 2344 points, 1 submission: AndreAbdel27
    1. What 30$ looks in Venezuela's Currency. (2344 points, 310 comments)
  3. 2000 points, 1 submission: sk221
    1. California just legalized marijuana - a $22 billlion industry can't open a bank account. Bitcoin, here's your chance! (2000 points, 202 comments)
  4. 1378 points, 14 submissions: eragmus
    1. Peter Thiel (member of President-Elect Trump's Transition Team): "It becomes a threat to fiat money at a point where Bitcoin is encrypted in such a robust way that the tax authorities can't break the encryption, can't tell how much money you have, and what transactions you are doing." [x-post] (498 points, 152 comments)
    2. Henry Brade: "Based on new transaction stats SegWit will more than double the #bitcoin tx capacity. And it enables secure LN for real scaling. We need it!" (275 points, 162 comments)
    3. Alex B.: "Back before the block size limit debate was even relevant, @gwern hit the nail on the head. Features are secondary, resilience sine qua non." ['Bitcoin’s greatest virtue is not its deflation, nor its microtransactions, but its viral distributed nature; it can wait for its opportunity.'] (155 points, 135 comments)
    4. An ELI5 on small vs. big blocks, and the importance of node decentralization. (67 points, 105 comments)
    5. SF Bitcoin Devs - Blockstream's Andrew Poelstra discusses MimbleWimble ["Is a blockchain design w/ no script support & blinded amounts. Like proverbial black holes, tx outputs have no hair. This simplicity allows aggressive compaction & aggregation, resulting in much better scalability."] (64 points, 11 comments)
    6. Avtar Sehra (CEO and Product Architect at Nivaura): "Nivaura has been approved by UK regulator to commercially test debt structuring, issuance, and [life cycle management of decentralised debt instruments] settlement on Bitcoin" (50 points, 5 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (November 10, 2016) (48 points, 8 comments)
    8. The Status of the ‘Hong Kong Hard Fork’: An Update (46 points, 19 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (November 17, 2016) (39 points, 2 comments)
    10. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (November 3, 2016) (36 points, 0 comments)
  5. 1167 points, 6 submissions: Coinosphere
    1. Marijuana now legal in eight more US States while vendors get more bitcoin options (698 points, 54 comments)
    2. Cell 411 launches decentralized ride sharing in Austin accepting Bitcoin (106 points, 24 comments)
    3. Hacker holds San Francisco railway to ransom, demands 100 bitcoins (98 points, 21 comments)
    4. IRS agrees to major cryptocurrency strategy overhaul following audit (96 points, 22 comments)
    5. Blockchain (most popular) wallet adding an instant bitcoin buying option for credit and debit cards (86 points, 15 comments)
    6. The oldest bitcoin exchange, BTCC, moves into the US market (83 points, 11 comments)
  6. 1085 points, 2 submissions: The_Arctic_Wolf
    1. Block #440,000 was just mined. There are 16 million bitcoin now. (1025 points, 132 comments)
    2. Turmeric launch, Rootstock's Testnet (video) (60 points, 18 comments)
  7. 952 points, 4 submissions: Onetallnerd
    1. Lawyers say they've found signs of a third rogue cop tied to the Silk Road case (768 points, 114 comments)
    2. Segwit Signaling. [Note that those signaling now will not affect consensus until the start of the next difficulty retarget] (75 points, 34 comments)
    3. The Bitcoin Lightning Spec Part 1/8 (63 points, 10 comments)
    4. [bitcoin-dev] Forcenet: an experimental network with a new header format (46 points, 19 comments)
  8. 844 points, 18 submissions: quadrilliondollars
    1. One of the four biggest accounting firms in the world adopts bitcoin! (169 points, 16 comments)
    2. Good news for Bitcoin: Iceland's Pirate party invited to form government. Anti-establishment group receives mandate for power-sharing pact after talks to build five-party coalition fail. (71 points, 5 comments)
    3. India just hard-forked the rupee. (70 points, 15 comments)
    4. Venezuela's currency now worth so little shopkeepers weigh vast piles of notes instead of counting them (68 points, 15 comments)
    5. Gold above 500 gm owned by married women can be seized: Fin Min (India). (66 points, 25 comments)
    6. Andreas Antonopoulos on London Real! (61 points, 15 comments)
    7. Please make your voice heard here. We can request bitcoin support from the next President. (58 points, 22 comments)
    8. IMF approves $12 billion bailout for Egypt after austerity measures including lifting currency controls last week which made the Egyptian pound drop by almost 50 percent against the dollar (43 points, 5 comments)
    9. The War On Cash Goes Nuclear In India, Australia and Across The World (36 points, 7 comments)
    10. (AA) Exponential Innovation - Hackers Congress (33 points, 2 comments)
  9. 831 points, 9 submissions: _smudger_
    1. WOW! China's Huiyin Group Launches $20 Million Bitcoin Fund (274 points, 32 comments)
    2. Winklevoss twins see bitcoin as better than gold. Brothers hope to launch ETF soon (227 points, 80 comments)
    3. India: ZebPay adding 25000 bitcoins customers per month !!! - reports enquiries up 20 to 30% in the past couple of days (108 points, 30 comments)
    4. Another record volume for LocalBitcoins including regional records in Europe,Pakistan,Russia,Saudi Arabia,USA and Venezuela (70 points, 11 comments)
    5. R3 blockchain opens to all (51 points, 59 comments)
    6. Liberland, Bitcoin Utopia: The man who created a tiny country he can no longer enter - BBC News (34 points, 25 comments)
    7. Go India!!! (31 points, 5 comments)
    8. Get voting! (19 points, 2 comments)
    9. China Imposes New Capital Controls; Bitcoin Price Optimistic (17 points, 20 comments)
  10. 819 points, 3 submissions: jmw74
    1. Coinbase pledges to fight IRS request in court (727 points, 242 comments)
    2. IRS requesting info from Coinbase on users transacting 2013-2015 (68 points, 57 comments)
    3. Hasn't segwit activation already failed for this difficulty period? (24 points, 37 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. nullc (3550 points, 273 comments)
  2. luke-jr (1988 points, 276 comments)
  3. Frogolocalypse (1668 points, 555 comments)
  4. bitusher (1587 points, 270 comments)
  5. BashCo (1127 points, 194 comments)
  6. dellintelbitcoin (1039 points, 274 comments)
  7. belcher_ (976 points, 189 comments)
  8. jcoinner (880 points, 208 comments)
  9. manginahunter (853 points, 307 comments)
  10. smartfbrankings (788 points, 184 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Excuse me? by btg643 (4004 points, 293 comments)
  2. What 30$ looks in Venezuela's Currency. by AndreAbdel27 (2344 points, 310 comments)
  3. California just legalized marijuana - a $22 billlion industry can't open a bank account. Bitcoin, here's your chance! by sk221 (2000 points, 202 comments)
  4. Block #440,000 was just mined. There are 16 million bitcoin now. by The_Arctic_Wolf (1025 points, 132 comments)
  5. "If Trump Wins, here's what I'll do..." User Coincle pledges to give away 25.47 bitcoin to those who commented on his post if Donald J. Trump is elected president. So, where's my bitcoin? by ILikeGreenit (806 points, 355 comments)
  6. Banking in India Right Now by surge3d (801 points, 198 comments)
  7. $12 B worth of the world's currency is uncontrolled and independent from the governments of the world. by ztsmart (795 points, 135 comments)
  8. Lawyers say they've found signs of a third rogue cop tied to the Silk Road case by Onetallnerd (768 points, 114 comments)
  9. Monthly reminder for newbies: The Bitcoins you store on an exchange ARE NOT YOUR BITCOINS - they are an IOU. If you hold a decent amount of bitcoins, please make the intelligent decision NOW to transfer your coins to a secure mobile or hardware wallet that you control. by GabeNewell_ (759 points, 237 comments)
  10. Coinbase pledges to fight IRS request in court by jmw74 (727 points, 242 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 534 points: EgoTrps's comment in "If Trump Wins, here's what I'll do..." User Coincle pledges to give away 25.47 bitcoin to those who commented on his post if Donald J. Trump is elected president. So, where's my bitcoin?
  2. 334 points: SuperPuffin's comment in BREAKING: Trump advisers considering $JPM CEO Dimon for Treasury post
  3. 292 points: AndreAbdel27's comment in What 30$ looks in Venezuela's Currency.
  4. 262 points: Myrmec's comment in Excuse me?
  5. 247 points: jtoomim's comment in Core is the new big blocker. 3.7Mb mined on testnet with segwit.
  6. 216 points: paperraincoat's comment in Excuse me?
  7. 190 points: brokenskill's comment in "If Trump Wins, here's what I'll do..." User Coincle pledges to give away 25.47 bitcoin to those who commented on his post if Donald J. Trump is elected president. So, where's my bitcoin?
  8. 181 points: amnesiac-eightyfour's comment in Banking in India Right Now
  9. 173 points: deleted's comment in Peter Thiel (member of President-Elect Trump's Transition Team): "It becomes a threat to fiat money at a point where Bitcoin is encrypted in such a robust way that the tax authorities can't break the encryption, can't tell how much money you have, and what transactions you are doing." [x-post]
  10. 171 points: butters1337's comment in BREAKING: Trump advisers considering $JPM CEO Dimon for Treasury post
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

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